The Centre for Respiratory Research at McGill University and the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre
Category Archives: Chronic Airways Disease
Chronic Airways Disease Theme: Chronic airway diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia share common features of chronic airflow obstruction and structural changes of the airways. These disorders are associated with an underlying inflammatory process that is driven by genetic susceptibility as well as environmental factors such as allergens and cigarette smoke. The main research questions being investigated focus on elucidating the basic mechanisms that lead to the development of chronic airways disease. Studies are also attempting to identify and characterize the clinical heterogeneity of these diseases in order to better personalize prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic tools.
Major scientific objectives of the chronic airways diseases theme include: (1) Elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms and develop novel therapeutics for allergic inflammation & airway hyperresponsiveness. (2) Understand the cellular and molecular basis for irritant (including air pollution & cigarette smoke) -induced lung disease, and its relevance to COPD and the Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome (ACOS). (3) Ascertain the biological basis for different asthma phenotypes, particularly severe asthma that is resistant to usual therapies.
View posts, news, and publications related to this research theme below.
As a specialist in Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) at the Meakins-Christie Laboratories, Ilan Azuelos, MD is an ardent promoter of improving outcomes for ILD patients. Treatment options for people with rare lung diseases, such as progressive fibrosing interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, may portend a life expectancy of between five and six and a half years after onset of symptoms. Dr. Azuelos knows that with research and education of the general public, this life expectancy can be improved.
“Ainsi, les personnes affligées de cette maladie seraient en mesure de passer plus de temps avec leur famille et de profiter au maximum de la vie.”
Ilan Azuelos, MD, MSc
Fortunately, programs have been initiated to address this area of medicine. MEDTEQ+, a pan-Canadian consortium for medical innovation, is bringing together industry leaders such as Boehringer Ingelheim Canada in partnership against PF-ILD. They aim to identify potential solutions to address the gaps in care for patients with IPD-PF, with the goal of accelerating access to treatments that delay the deterioration of lung function.
With the general public more aware of the symptoms of the onset of lung disease, patients could seek out treatment at an earlier stage. Increased funding for research would lead to a better understanding and the development of novel treatment options. Each would play an important role in a better, perhaps longer, life after diagnosis.
Read the following articles to learn more of the importance of improving education and treatment options for patients with ILD:
This award is given to a researcher from the Montreal Children’s Hospital community whose initiatives have made a unique and significant contribution to pediatric care.
Dr. McCusker is passionate about her work, which surely explains her success. Over the past few years, she and her team have cured children of allergies to tree nuts, milk and eggs thanks to a desensitization program she helped put in place. She has led her team to positive clinical research outcomes, advancing treatments and helping empower children with allergies.
“I love my job! I also get to play with kids and help reduce parents’ anxiety.”
Dr. Christine McCusker
Learn more about Dr. McCusker and the Montreal Children’s Hospital Foundation Pfizer Research Award of Excellence:
A CBD Research Partnership Fund has been launched by the Association québécoise de l’industrie du cannabis (AQIC) and the McGill Research Centre for Cannabis. Dr. Carolyn Baglole, Director of the McGill Research Centre for Cannabis, believes this increased research funding will result in increased safety and effectiveness of medical CBD.
“We are pleased to partner with the AQIC in a project that provides much-needed financial support for CBD research, the results of which ultimately will give a better understanding of the safety and efficacy of CBD. A partnership between McGill and the private sector will allow us to combine resources, thereby raising the bar of scientific discovery, and the promise that medical cannabis holds.”
Dr. Carolyn Baglole
The launch of this CBD Research Partnership Fund marks the second anniversary of the legalization of the use of cannabis in Canada.
Dr. Carolyn Baglole of the Meakins-Christie Laboratories talks about the future of cannabis research in Canada, and how legalization has had a positive impact in this field. Funding opportunities have increased considerably and barriers to research, such as access to different cannabis products, have diminished. Stigmas surrounding medical cannabis continue to exist, but the future of cannabis research in Canada is evident.
Allergic diseases are on the rise. Specifically, allergic asthma in children, which has become the number one chronic illness in Canada. It is also a major cause of children being hospitalized. Dr. Irah King, of the Meakins-Christie Laboratories, is a co-author on a recent Nature Immunology publication on the topic. Understanding the increasing rate of allergic asthma is the first step towards preventing or finding a cure.
The leading theory is known as “The Hygiene Hypothesis” – that due to regular use of antibiotics and disinfectants, people are less exposed to microorganisms that would normally train our immune system to be more tolerant. To exacerbate the lowered immune response, our exposure to substances in our environment, such as surfactants in detergent, may induce cell death. These compounds are harmful to barrier surfaces such as the intestines and lungs and may additionally prime our immune system to generate allergic, type-2 responses.
Congratulations to all Meakins and RECRU members who were funded in the Spring 2020 Project Grant Competition! Congratulations to ALL!
Sabah Hussain. Co-investigators: Gilles Gouspillou, Marco Sandri. Title: MYTHO: An uncharacterized FoxO-dependent gene that controls autophagy and skeletal muscle mass.
Jean Bourbeau, Sébastien Gagnon. Co-investigators: Rebecca Colman, James Downar, Dennis Jensen, Hayley Lewthwaite, Bryan Ross. Title: Sublingual Fentanyl for acute relief of breathlessness in patients with advanced COPD : A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design trial.
Kevin Schwartzman, James Johnston. Title: Tuberculosis in Canada: Modeling to Inform Elimination. Ranked 2nd in the Public, Community & Population Health.
In an interview with Radio-Canada, Dr. Jean Bourbeau speaks to the impact of poor air quality caused by wildfire smoke currently blanketing parts of British Columbia. The impact of poor air quality could last much longer than the actual smoke. The fine particulate matter from these forest fires has a significant impact on the health of everyone exposed. While it is important to understand the short term impact of this smoke, it is equally important to examine the long term impact on health. We do not know the impact of smoke exposure on the development of diseases, nor do we really know its impact on the progression of an underlying disease.
On ne connaît pas quels sont les risques de la fumée sur le développement de maladies ou même sur la progression plus rapide d’une maladie existante, explique le spécialiste.
The objective of the grant is to investigate the effects of vaping products on cardiopulmonary outcomes, alone and in conjunction with SARS-CoV-2 infection. They propose to develop a mouse model of vaping to understand the effects on the lung, as well as the heart, vessels, and immune system. They will further use a mouse model to test whether vaping can alter that infection of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. This model could then be used to test new vaping products as they enter the market for toxicity and/or to test therapies to counter act the severe toxicities of vaping.
Liminal BioSciences, a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company, has acquired a preclinical research program of small OXE molecule antagonists. This program is based on the research of Dr. William Powell, Professor Emeritus in the Department of Medicine at McGill University, working in collaboration with Dr. Joshua Rokach of the Florida Institute of Technology.
Investigational therapies developed in this program target a key chemoattractant and activator of eosinophils, which play a key role in Type 2 inflammation-driven diseases through tissue repair and resolution of inflammation. Drs. Powell and Rokach developed a series of potentially first-in-class, oral, selective OXE receptor antagonists against 5-oxo-ETE, one of the most potent human eosinophil chemoattractants. Migration of eosinophils to body sites including the lungs and intestines is mediated by eosinophil chemoattractants such as 5-oxo-ETE. Eosinophils play a key role in Type 2 inflammation-driven diseases, including certain respiratory and gastro-intestinal diseases. Dr. Powell will serve as an advisor to Liminal BioSciences on the Fairhaven R&D Program.
“Compared to biologics, small molecule OXE receptor antagonists offer a promising and potentially more cost-effective treatment option for eosinophilic-driven disorders. I am looking forward to working with Liminal BioSciences to continue development on this exciting R&D program initiated by work carried out at McGill University and FIT.”
Read the entire press release by Liminal BioSciences:
Dr. Jean Bourbeau received funding from the CIHR COVID-19 May 2020 Rapid Research Funding Opportunity. Title of grant: COVID-19 and COPD: Important knowledge gaps in subclinical pulmonary disease in the Canadian population.
Dr. Jean Bourbeau is an Associate Member of the Meakins-Christie Laboratories, Member of the RECRU, and Scientist at the RI-MUHC RESP Program. His research focuses primarily on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and secondarily on disease management, self-management, pulmonary rehabilitation and cardiorespiratory exercise physiology.